Publication Year


Fingerprint Analysis

From: Lawyer's Guide to the Forensic Sciences


Explores fingerprint analysis, focusing primarily on the science of fingerprint analysis, such as fingerprint examination and digit determination. The role of the fingerprint examiner in criminal cases is also covered, alongside a section on the legal context.



Wade Knapp

Wade Knaap, Toronto Police Service Det. Cst. (Retired), is a part-time faculty member in the forensic science program at the University of Toronto Mississauga where he teaches forensic science and forensic identification-related courses. Prior to this, Mr. Knaap was a detective constable with the Toronto Police Service and a forensic identification specialist in the Forensic Identification Services Unit. Mr. Knaap regularly lectures and conducts workshops at universities, colleges, and conferences throughout Canada and the United States on forensic development techniques and related topics. He is a past president of the Canadian Identification Society and a former chair of the Ontario Police College Forensic Advisory Board. Mr. Knaap is a serving member of the Forensic Advisory Committee at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology and teaches a course in applied methods of forensic identification at the University of Windsor. He has been published numerous times in the Journal of Forensic Identification, Identification Canada, and the RCMP Gazette regarding forensic identification concepts. Mr. Knaap was also a contributing author in the textbook Crime and Measurement: Methods in Forensic Investigation (Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2011). Since 2012, Mr. Knaap has been the editor of Identification Canada (published by the Canadian Identification Society). In 2002–2003, he was the recipient of the Al Waxman Award for Excellence in the Field of Forensic Identification.

Caitlin M. Pakosh, HBSc, JD, has been working as case management counsel of Innocence Canada (formerly known as AIDWYC) since 2012 and is responsible for managing the Association’s cases across Canada. She obtained her honours bachelor of science degree, specializing in forensic anthropology and earning a minor in biology, from the University of Toronto Mississauga in 2008. Her undergraduate thesis, which examined the decomposition of dismembered pig limbs enclosed in plastic bags and submerged in Lake Ontario, was conducted during her internship with the Toronto Police Service Marine Unit and published in the Journal of Forensic Sciences in 2009. Ms. Pakosh obtained her Juris Doctor degree from the University of Calgary in 2011. She has appeared in the Court of Appeal for Ontario and has worked on intervener and appellate cases that have appeared at a variety of levels of court, including the Supreme Court of Canada, as well as ministerial review applications. Since 2013, Ms. Pakosh has cross-examined forensic science students in annual mock trials at the University of Toronto Mississauga, where students practise being expert witnesses. She is a member of the Criminal Lawyers’ Association and the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers. She is also an associate member of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences and the Canadian Society of Forensic Science.