From: Tar Sands Showdown
This chapter covers the early development of the tar sands with the following subsections: (a) black gold: the pioneers who developed the technology to extract oil from the tar sands; (b) land grabs: the takeover of indigenous lands, federal and provincial control disputes, and land grants to oil companies; (c) petro-politics: the federal-provincial struggle for control over tar sands development and energy policy-making; (d) energy surrender: how Canada relinquished control over energy development to the US.
TONY CLARKE is the founder and director of the Polaris Institute in Ottawa, an organization dedicated to developing tools and strategies for civic action on major public policy issues, including energy security, water rights, and free trade. He holds a doctorate from the University of Chicago, has written numerous books, and is the recipient of Sweden's Right Livelihood Award, the "alternative Nobel Prize." Among his most recent books is Blue Gold: The Fight to Stop the Corporate Theft of the World's Water with Maude Barlow.