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ISBN: 9781771135566-13

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The Fourth World

A Global Movement


From: Unsettling Canada


The Fourth World discusses the struggle to find justice on the international stage when it has been denied at home. This chapter focuses on the history of the idea of a “the Fourth World” wherein Indigenous nations were trapped within states in the First, Second, and Third Worlds, who had been kept isolated and voiceless for too long. The chapter follows Manuel’s own time working with other Indigenous activists across the world and how they pushed for collective action both at home and globally.



Arthur Manuel

Arthur Manuel fought for decades for Indigenous land and human rights in Canada and internationally. He participated in the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues from its inception in 2002 and served as spokesperson for the Indigenous Network on Economies and Trade (INET) from 2003 to 2016. Working through INET, Manuel succeeded in having the struggle for Aboriginal title and treaty rights injected into international financial institutions, setting important precedents for Aboriginal title and rights in Canada. Manuel was a spokesperson for the Defenders of the Land.