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ISBN: 9781771135566-03

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White Paper to Red Paper

Drawing the Battle Lines


From: Unsettling Canada


White Paper to Red Paper focuses on the White Papers created by Indian Affairs Minister Jean Chrétien in 1969, which was an attempt to abolish the Indian Act and Indian Status in Canada. The chapter focuses on the colonial and assimilatory ideology behind the White Papers and how it causes anger and resistance from Indigenous communities across Canada.



Arthur Manuel

Arthur Manuel fought for decades for Indigenous land and human rights in Canada and internationally. He participated in the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues from its inception in 2002 and served as spokesperson for the Indigenous Network on Economies and Trade (INET) from 2003 to 2016. Working through INET, Manuel succeeded in having the struggle for Aboriginal title and treaty rights injected into international financial institutions, setting important precedents for Aboriginal title and rights in Canada. Manuel was a spokesperson for the Defenders of the Land.